Today, 80 governments have adopted a system to control the export and import of rough diamonds mined from 2003 onward. Known as the Kimberley Process, it requires that each shipment of rough diamonds –before cutting and polishing – be placed in a tamper-resistant container and accompanied by a government-validated certificate. Each certificate is uniquely numbered and contains data describing the shipment’s contents.
Conflict diamonds or "blood diamonds" are diamonds that originate from areas controlled by forces or factions opposed to legitimate and internationally recognized governments. Since the issue of conflict diamonds first gained notice within the diamond industry ten years ago, the flow of blood diamonds has been dramatically reduced, most significantly by implementation of the Kimberley Process.
The Kimberley Process, launched in 2003, is an international initiative to prevent proceeds from the sale of conflict diamonds from financing civil wars, rebel uprisings, and other forms of unrest which have led to the suffering of many innocent people groups.
The 80 countries that participate in the Kimberley Process agree to trade rough diamonds only with those other countries which have adopted the process. The Clean Diamond Trade Act of 2003 and Executive Order 13312 were used to legally commit the U.S. to the Kimberley Process, and established a framework for how the process is implemented.